The vertical distance from the floor to the top of the head.
Average ratio of shoulder height to stature is 0.818. R2=0.93 and RMSE=16.34.
Measured from ground to the lateral border of the acromial process (notch in bone on top edge of shoulder).
Average ratio of elbow height to stature is 0.630. R2=0.20 and RMSE=18.07.
Measured from ground to radiale (highest point on the outside edge of the radius).
Average ratio of wrist height to stature is 0.485. R2=0.73 and RMSE=21.47.
Measured from ground to the stylion (the lowest point on the bottom of the radius).
Average ratio of fingertip height to stature is 0.377. R2=0.59 and RMSE=24.32.
Measured from ground to the tip of the middle finger. Fingers are extended with hand pointing at ground.
Average ratio of ankle height to stature is 0.0.039. R2=0.21 and RMSE=4.87.
Measured from ground to the lateral malleolus (outside of ankle bone).
Average ratio of shoulder breadth to stature is 0.259. R2=0.15 and RMSE=23.89.
Measured at the outside of the shoulders.
Average ratio of hip breadth to stature is 0.191. R2=0.20 and RMSE=18.07.
Measured at the height of maximum buttock protuberance.
Average ratio of popliteal height to stature is 0.285. R2=0.76 and RMSE=12.97.
Measured from ground to the lateral femoral epicondyle (knee pivot point).
Average ratio of leg length to stature is 0.530. R2=0.75 and RMSE=24.01.
Measured from ground to the top of the trochanter (bony part at the outside, top of the femur).
Average ratio of upper arm length to stature is 0.186. R2=0.64 and RMSE=10.28.
Measured from the acromial process (notch in bone on top edge of shoulder) to radiale (highest point on the outside edge of the radius).
Average ratio of lower arm length to stature is 0.146. R2=0.48 and RMSE=11.25.
Measured from the radiale (highest point on the outside edge of radius) to the stylion (the lowest point on the bottom of the radius).
Average ratio of hand length to stature is 0.108. R2=0.42 and RMSE=7.44.
Measured from the stylion (the lowest point on the bottom of the radius) to the tip of the third finger with the hand flat and fingers together.
Proportionality constants describe the average ratio of a given body segment length to stature. The ratios used here are from Drillis and Contini (1966) and are among the most-used (see figure to the left). Their use can be problematic, however, since segment ratios of any individual are not likely to be "average". In other words, the ratios for a given segment vary widely across individuals within a given population. Also, while a measure like "shoulder height" correlates well with stature (R2 = 0.93), other measures, such as "shoulder breadth" (R2 = 0.15) do not. As a result, this is a helpful tool for exploring relationships, but should not be used for real design.
The R2 and RMSE are reported for each segment by tapping on the indicated value. These values come from a regression on the ANSUR data.
For a more detailed discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of proportionality constants, see Fromuth and Parkinson (2008), "Predicting 5th and 95th percentile anthropometric segment lengths from population stature" by visiting dfhv.org.